In this article, We will discuss about how many chromosomes do humans have. A human body commonly has 23 pairs of chromosomes. Total of 46 chromosomes. This sentence is a simple answer to the question “How many chromosomes do humans have.”
It has more hidden facts in that we will discuss today. Both Males and Females have 22 same pairs of chromosomes. Which are typically called autosomes. 23rd Pair of Chromosome that is also called chromosomes XY. This pair is different in males and females.
Female chromosome pair contains both X-chromosomes (homologous chromosomes). But Male one includes one X-chromosome and one Y-chromosome (heterogeneous chromosomes). Now, let’s move to what is a chromosome.
What is a Chromosome?
A chromosome is formed by DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). Which is tightly coiled many times around hi-stones that provide support to its structure. It is invisible in the cell’s nucleus even when dropping it under the microscope. It has been observed most researchers only during the cell division process. However, construction point of the chromosome called centromere. That divides chromosome into two parts p and q arms.
Sex determination with Chromosome
We observe that few of thousands of humans have only one sex. Chromosome 45X and 45Y. These are sex Monosomies. A few of them born with three or more than three chromosomes. Just like that structure (47XXX, 47XXY, 47XYY, 47YYY). This classification declared as sex Polysomies.
In short, these chromosomes structure is much complex as discussed. Moreover, never forget sex and gender are two different things. Most of the people determine it same. Here is also crucial to talk about the DNA. Because it is interrelated with chromosomes.
The Relation between DNA and Chromosome
Deoxyribonucleic Acid is a genetic code. It is a source to allow information to transfer from a generation to another. It consists of a helical structure. Then further it goes to a chromosome structure. As discussed above, chromosomes divided into two part at the point of the centromere. This point difference classifies the chromosomes into four types. Before going further more about how many chromosomes do humans have. Let’s Know about the types of chromosomes in details.
Four Types of chromosomes enlisted below.
1- Metacentric chromosomes
Metacentric chromosomes have centromere in the center of chromosomes. In other words, both p and q arms have the same size of the division. Humans have two pairs of their first pair. The third one is metacentric chromosome.
2- Submetacentric chromosomes
In submetacentric chromosomes, the centromere position becomes slightly offset from the center. Means to say p and q arms do not have the same size. In human chromosomes, 4th and 12th pairs are submetacentric chromosomes usually.
3- Acrocentric chromosomes
Acrocentric chromosomes have centromere at a close distance from the center of the chromosome. One Section severely long. The other section is critically short. In these types of chromosomes. In the human body, regularly 13th, 15th, 21st, 22nd pair of chromosomes are acrocentric chromosomes.
4- Telocentric chromosomes
In telocentric chromosomes, the centromere position goes at the very end of chromosomes. The extreme position may vary for p or q type. But centromere is at one end of one chromosome. And another end of another chromosome in case of telocentric chromosome pair. Such kind of chromosomes are not found in human beings. These are commonly present in reptiles and mice.
Function of Chromosomes
As we have studied earlier that DNA molecules make up chromosomes. That contains all genetic information and other information about the functioning of the whole body. Hence, chromosomes play a significant role in the life of a human being.
If these chromosomes are disturbed or there is any mutation in them. The whole lifestyle of a person ruined. The chromosomes determine the characteristics of a person. Like the color of eyes, skin tone, hair color, and other traits.
Majorly the chromosomes protect the DNA molecules by keeping them wrapped around proteins. Otherwise, the DNA molecule is so long. It cannot fit inside the small nucleus.
Chromosomes are also responsible for the thorough distribution of genetic information (DNA). During the process of reproduction. In most organisms, the zygote cell contains one sex chromosome from both parents each.
So that trait of the offspring is a combination of both parents. Also, the chromosomes protect the genetic information stored in DNA from enzymes, other chemical substances, and from physical force too.
Now, this is the time, to sum up, the discussion about how many chromosomes do humans have by a final word. Chromosomes define the traits. We need these thread-like molecules to reproduce. To survive and to define our lives. Human cells regularly contain 46 chromosomes. That makes their identity. And keep them unique from other species and other human beings.